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Le synode n'a jamais remis en question les vérités sur le mariage
Mais le pape François discerne cinq tentations

Anita Bourdin

ROME, 18 octobre 2014 (Zenit.org) - Le pape François discerne cinq tentations, au terme du synode extraordinaire sur la famille: autant de points de repères pour un examen de conscience tout au long du processus synodal, qui se poursuit jusqu'au synode de 2015. Il déclare en même temps que "jamais" le synode n'a "remis en question les vérités fondamentales du Sacrement du mariage". Il "canonise" la "Relatio synodi" comme un "résumé fidèle et clair de tout ce qui a été dit et discuté en salle, et dans les carrefours".

Le pape s'est adressé à l'assemblée, et son discours a duré une vingtaine de minutes, mentionnant notamment ces "cinq tentations": il n'a pas ignoré les difficultés du synode. Les applaudissements debout ont duré cinq minutes.

Les cinq tentations

Les cinq tentations sont, pour le pape François : la tentation d'un "raidissement hostile"; ou d'un "bonisme" qui serait "destructeur"; la tentation de "transformer la pierre en pain pour rompre un jeûne long, pesant et douloureux" ou de transformer "le pain en pierre" et de la "jeter contre les pécheurs"; la tentation de "descendre de la croix, pour contenter les gens"; le danger de "négliger le dépôt de la foi" et celui de "négliger la réalité".

Le pape s'explique sur chacune de ces tentations. La première: « La tentation du raidissement hostile, c’est-à-dire de vouloir s’enfermer dans la lettre (...), à l’intérieur de la loi, avec la certitude de ce que nous connaissons et non de ce que devons encore apprendre et atteindre. A l'époque de Jésus, c’est la tentation des zélotes, des scrupuleux, des impatients et aujourd'hui de ceux qu’on appelle aujourd’hui des "traditionnalistes" ou aussi des "intellectualistes". »

La deuxième: « La tentation d’un bonisme destructeur, qui, au nom d’une miséricorde traîtressse, met un pansement sur les blessures sans d’abord les soigner, qui traite les symptômes et non les causes et les racines. C’est la tentation des timorés, et aussi de ceux qu’on nomme les progressistes et les libéraux. »

La troisième: « La tentation de transformer la pierre en pain pour rompre un long jeûne, pesant et douloureux (Lc 4, 1-4) et aussi de transformer le pain en pierre et de la jeter contre les pécheurs, les faibles, les malades (Jn 8,7), c’est-à-dire de les transformer en un fardeau insupportable (Lc 10, 27). »

La quatrième: « La tentation de descendre de la Croix, pour contenter les gens, de ne pas rester à accomplir la volonté du Père, de se plier à l’esprit du monde au lieu de le purifier et de le plier à l’Esprit de Dieu. »

La cinquième: « La tentation de négliger le dépôt de la foi en se considérant non comme des gardiens mais des propriétaires et des maîtres ou, de l’autre côté, la tentation de négliger la réalité en utilisant un langage minutieux et un langage pour dire tant de choses et ne rien dire. Nous appelons cela du "byzantinisme" je crois. »

N'ayez pas peur

"Chers frères et soeurs, a ajouté le pape, les tentations ne doivent ni nous faire peur ni nous déconcerter et encore moins nous décourager, parce qu'aucun disciple n'est plus grand que son maître; donc, si Jésus a été tenté - et même appelé Belzéboul (cf. Mt 12, 24) - ses disciples ne doivent pas s'attendre à un traitement meilleur."

Il confie : "Personnellement, j'aurais été très préoccupé et attristé s'il n'y avait pas eu ces tentations et ces discussions animées, ce mouvement des esprits - comme saint Ignace l'appelait (Exercices spirituels, 6) -, si tous avaient été d'accord ou taciturnes, dans une paix fausse et quiétiste."

"Au contraire, a-t-il poursuivi, j'ai vu et j'ai écouté - avec joie et reconnaissance - des discours et des interventions pleins de foi, de zèle pastoral et doctrinal, de sagesse, de franchise, de courage et de parresie. Et j'ai senti qu'on a mis devant ses yeux le bien de l'Eglise, des familles, et la "loi suprême" [suprema lex dans le texte, ndlr], le "salut des âmes" [salus animarum, dans le texte] (cf. Code de droit canon, canon 1752). Et cela toujours - nous l'avons dit ici dans la salle - sans jamais mettre en discussion les vérités fondamentales du Sacrement du mariage: l'indissolubilité, l'unité, la fidélité et la procréativité, c'est-à-dire l'ouverture à la vie (cf. Canons 1055, 1056 et Gaudium et Spes, 48)."

Amour de l'Eglise

Le pape a ensuite manifesté son amour pour l'Eglise, "mère féconde" et "maîtresse attentive" qui "n'a pas peur de se retrousser les manches pour verser l'huile et le vin sur les blessures des hommes."

Il a indiqué le chemin encore à parcourir: "Maintenant, nous avons encore un an pour mûrir les idées proposées , avec un vrai discernement spirituel, et pour trouver des solutions concrètes a tant de difficultés et d'innombrables défis que les familles doivent affronter, à donner des réponses à tant de découragements qui entourent et suffoquent les familles. Un an pour travailler sur la "Relatio synodi" qui est le résumé fidèle et clair de tout ce qui a été dit et discuté dans cette salle, et dans les carrefours. Et qui est présenté aux conférences épiscopales comme les "Lineamenta". " Les lineamenta sont le document de base d'un synode qui doit ensuite servir au Secrétariat du synode pour élaborer un "instrument de travail" (Instrumentum laboris).

L'assemblée synodale a été une expérience d'Église: « Voilà l’Église Une, Sainte, Catholique et Apostolique et composée de pécheurs, qui ont besoin de sa miséricorde. Voilà l’Église, la vraie épouse du Christ, qui cherche à être fidèle à son Epoux et à sa doctrine. Voilà l’Église qui n’a pas peur de manger et de boire avec les prostituées et les publicains, l’Église qui a les portes grandes ouvertes pour recevoir ceux qui sont dans le besoin, les repentis et pas seulement les justes ou ceux qui croient être parfaits ! »

La paix intérieure

A propos des commentaires suscités par le synode, il a ajouté: «Tant de commentateurs, ou de gens qui parlent, ont imaginé voir une Eglise en conflit ou une partie contre l’autre, en doutant même de l’Esprit Saint, le vrai promoteur et garant de l’unité et de l’harmonie de l’Église. L’Esprit Saint qui au long de l’Histoire a toujours mené la barque, par ses ministres, même quand la mer était contraire et agitée et les ministres infidèles et pécheurs. Et comme je vous l’ai dit au début du Synode, il était nécessaire de vivre tout cela avec tranquillité, avec paix intérieure aussi parce que le Synode se déroule cum Petro et sub Petro et que la présence du Pape est une garantie pour tous. »

Il ajoute, avec auto-ironie: « Parlons un peu du pape, maintenant, en relation avec les évêques. Donc, le devoir du pape est celui de garantir l’unité de l'Église. Et celui de rappeler aux fidèles leur devoir de suivre fidèlement l’Évangile du Christ, et celui de rappeler aux pasteurs que leur premier devoir est de nourrir le troupeau que le Seigneur leur a confié et de chercher à accueillir avec paternité et miséricorde et sans fausse peur les brebis égarées. »


 




AGENCY ZENIT

Pope Francis' Address to the Synod Fathers

"Many commentators, or people who talk, have imagined that they see a disputatious Church where one part is against the other, doubting even the Holy Spirit, the true promoter and guarantor of the unity and harmony of the Church"

VATICAN CITY, October 19, 2014 (Zenit.org) - Here is the translation of the Holy Father's address to the Synod Fathers at the conclusion of the Synod of the Family.

* * *

Dear Eminences, Beatitudes, Excellencies, Brothers and Sisters,

With a heart full of appreciation and gratitude I want to thank, along with you, the Lord who has accompanied and guided us in the past days, with the light of the Holy Spirit.

From the heart I thank Cardinal Lorenzo Baldisseri, Secretary General of the Synod, Bishop Fabio Fabene, under-secretary, and with them I thank the Relators, Cardinal Peter Erdo, who has worked so much in these days of family mourning, and the Special Secretary Bishop Bruno Forte, the three President delegates, the transcribers, the consultors, the translators and the unknown workers, all those who have worked with true fidelity and total dedication behind the scenes and without rest. Thank you so much from the heart.

I thank all of you as well, dear Synod fathers, Fraternal Delegates, Auditors, and Assessors, for your active and fruitful participation. I will keep you in prayer asking the Lord to reward you with the abundance of His gifts of grace!

I can happily say that with a spirit of collegiality and of synodality we have truly lived the experience of Synod, a path of solidarity, a journey together.

And it has been a journey and like every journey there were moments of running fast, as if wanting to conquer time and reach the goal as soon as possible; other moments of fatigue, as if wanting to say enough; other moments of enthusiasm and ardour. There were moments of profound consolation listening to the testimony of true pastors, who wisely carry in their hearts the joys and the tears of their faithful people. Moments of consolation and grace and comfort hearing the testimonies of the families who have participated in the Synod and have shared with us the beauty and the joy of their married life. A journey where the stronger feel compelled to help the less strong, where the more experienced are led to serve others, even through confrontations. And since it is a journey of human beings, with the consolations there were also moments of desolation, of tensions and temptations, of which a few possibilities could be mentioned:

- One, a temptation to hostile inflexibility, that is, wanting to close oneself within the written word, (the letter) and not allowing oneself to be surprised by God, by the God of surprises, (the spirit); within the law, within the certitude of what we know and not of what we still need to learn and to achieve. From the time of Christ, it is the temptation of the zealous, of the scrupulous, of the solicitous and of the so-called today traditionalists and also of the intellectuals.

- The temptation to a destructive tendency to goodness [it. buonismo], that in the name of a deceptive mercy binds the wounds without first curing them and treating them; that treats the symptoms and not the causes and the roots. It is the temptation of the do-gooders, of the fearful, and also of the so-called progressives and liberals.

- The temptation to transform stones into bread to break the long, heavy, and painful fast (cf. Lk 4:1-4); and also to transform the bread into a stone and cast it against the sinners, the weak, and the sick (cf Jn 8:7), that is, to transform it into unbearable burdens (Lk 11:46).

- The temptation to come down off the Cross, to please the people, and not stay there, in order to fulfil the will of the Father; to bow down to a worldly spirit instead of purifying it and bending it to the Spirit of God.

- The temptation to neglect the depositum fidei [the deposit of faith], not thinking of themselves as guardians but as owners or masters [of it]; or, on the other hand, the temptation to neglect reality, making use of meticulous language and a language of smoothing to say so many things and to say nothing! They call them byzantinisms, I think, these things

Dear brothers and sisters, the temptations must not frighten or disconcert us, or even discourage us, because no disciple is greater than his master; so if Jesus Himself was tempted and even called Beelzebul (cf. Mt 12:24) His disciples should not expect better treatment.

Personally I would be very worried and saddened if it were not for these temptations and these animated discussions; this movement of the spirits, as St Ignatius called it (Spiritual Exercises, 6), if all were in a state of agreement, or silent in a false and quietist peace. Instead, I have seen and I have heard with joy and appreciation speeches and interventions full of faith, of pastoral and doctrinal zeal, of wisdom, of frankness and of courage: and of parresia. And I have felt that what was set before our eyes was the good of the Church, of families, and the supreme law, the good of souls (cf. Can. 1752). And this always we have said it here, in the Hall without ever putting into question the fundamental truths of the Sacrament of marriage: the indissolubility, the unity, the faithfulness, the fruitfulness, that openness to life (cf. Cann. 1055, 1056; and Gaudium et spes, 48).

And this is the Church, the vineyard of the Lord, the fertile Mother and the caring Teacher, who is not afraid to roll up her sleeves to pour oil and wine on peoples wound; who doesnt see humanity as a house of glass to judge or categorize people. This is the Church, One, Holy, Catholic, Apostolic and composed of sinners, needful of Gods mercy. This is the Church, the true bride of Christ, who seeks to be faithful to her spouse and to her doctrine. It is the Church that is not afraid to eat and drink with prostitutes and publicans. The Church that has the doors wide open to receive the needy, the penitent, and not only the just or those who believe they are perfect! The Church that is not ashamed of the fallen brother and pretends not to see him, but on the contrary feels involved and almost obliged to lift him up and to encourage him to take up the journey again and accompany him toward a definitive encounter with her Spouse, in the heavenly Jerusalem.

The is the Church, our Mother! And when the Church, in the variety of her charisms, expresses herself in communion, she cannot err: it is the beauty and the strength of the sensus fidei, of that supernatural sense of the faith which is bestowed by the Holy Spirit so that, together, we can all enter into the heart of the Gospel and learn to follow Jesus in our life. And this should never be seen as a source of confusion and discord.

Many commentators, or people who talk, have imagined that they see a disputatious Church where one part is against the other, doubting even the Holy Spirit, the true promoter and guarantor of the unity and harmony of the Church the Holy Spirit who throughout history has always guided the barque, through her Ministers, even when the sea was rough and choppy, and the ministers unfaithful and sinners.

And, as I have dared to tell you , [as] I told you from the beginning of the Synod, it was necessary to live through all this with tranquillity, and with interior peace, so that the Synod would take place cum Petro and sub Petro (with Peter and under Peter), and the presence of the Pope is the guarantee of it all.

We will speak a little bit about the Pope, now, in relation to the Bishops [laughing]. So, the duty of the Pope is that of guaranteeing the unity of the Church; it is that of reminding the faithful of their duty to faithfully follow the Gospel of Christ; it is that of reminding the pastors that their first duty is to nourish the flock to nourish the flock that the Lord has entrusted to them, and to seek to welcome with fatherly care and mercy, and without false fears the lost sheep. I made a mistake here. I said welcome: [rather] to go out and find them.

His duty is to remind everyone that authority in the Church is a service, as Pope Benedict XVI clearly explained, with words I cite verbatim: The Church is called and commits herself to exercise this kind of authority which is service and exercises it not in her own name, but in the name of Jesus Christ through the Pastors of the Church, in fact: it is he who guides, protects and corrects them, because he loves them deeply. But the Lord Jesus, the supreme Shepherd of our souls, has willed that the Apostolic College, today the Bishops, in communion with the Successor of Peter to participate in his mission of taking care of God's People, of educating them in the faith and of guiding, inspiring and sustaining the Christian community, or, as the Council puts it, to see to it... that each member of the faithful shall be led in the Holy Spirit to the full development of his own vocation in accordance with Gospel preaching, and to sincere and active charity and to exercise that liberty with which Christ has set us free (cf. Presbyterorum Ordinis, 6) and it is through us, Pope Benedict continues, that the Lord reaches souls, instructs, guards and guides them. St Augustine, in his Commentary on the Gospel of St John, says: let it therefore be a commitment of love to feed the flock of the Lord (cf. 123, 5); this is the supreme rule of conduct for the ministers of God, an unconditional love, like that of the Good Shepherd, full of joy, given to all, attentive to those close to us and solicitous for those who are distant (cf. St Augustine, Discourse 340, 1; Discourse 46, 15), gentle towards the weakest, the little ones, the simple, the sinners, to manifest the infinite mercy of God with the reassuring words of hope (cf. ibid., Epistle, 95, 1).

So, the Church is Christ's, she is His bride and all the bishops, in communion with the Successor of Peter, have the task and the duty of guarding her and serving her, not as masters but as servants. The Pope, in this context, is not the supreme lord but rather the supreme servant the servant of the servants of God; the guarantor of the obedience and the conformity of the Church to the will of God, to the Gospel of Christ, and to the Tradition of the Church, putting aside every personal whim, despite being by the will of Christ Himself the supreme Pastor and Teacher of all the faithful (Can. 749) and despite enjoying supreme, full, immediate, and universal ordinary power in the Church (cf. Cann. 331-334).

Dear brothers and sisters, now we still have one year to mature, with true spiritual discernment, the proposed ideas and to find concrete solutions to so many difficulties and innumerable challenges that families must confront; to give answers to the many discouragements that surround and suffocate families.

One year to work on the Synodal Relatio which is the faithful and clear summary of everything that has been said and discussed in this hall and in the small groups. It is presented to the Episcopal Conferences as lineamenta [guidelines].

May the Lord accompany us, and guide us in this journey for the glory of His Name, with the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary and of Saint Joseph. And please, do not forget to pray for me! Thank you!

[Translation by Vatican Radio]